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LITERACY STANDARDS FOR GRADES 6-12: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
College- and Career-Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading
The Grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College- and Career-Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.
•Key Ideas and Details (RST 1-3)
•Craft and Structure (RST 4-6)
•Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (RST 7-9)
•Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (RST 10)
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12
The standards below begin at Grade 6; standards for K-5 writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 writing standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college- and career-readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
•Text Types and Purposes (WHST 1-3)
•Production and Distribution of Writing (WHST 4-6)
•Research to Build and Present Knowledge (WHST 7-9)
•Range of Writing (WHST 10)
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,rewriting, or typing a new approach.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each souce, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton’s laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion.
a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton’s second law.
b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton’s second and third laws.
Evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between the force acting on an object, the time of interaction, and the change in momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem.
Identify and analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion and develop an understanding of the effect of rotational inertia on the motion of a rotating object (e.g., merry-go-round, spinning toy, spinning figure skater, stellar collapse [supernova], rapidly spinning pulsar).
Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another
(e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).
Investigate collisions, both elastic and inelastic, to evaluate the effects on momentum and energy conservation.
Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g., heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and low-temperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done).
a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction (e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight).
b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.
Investigate the nature of wave behavior to illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns, constructive and destructive interference, and standing waves (e.g., organ pipes, tuned exhaust systems).
a. Predict and explore how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena such as the Doppler effect and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR).
Obtain and evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation and compare it to sound propagation. (e.g., wireless telephones, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microwave systems, Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], SONAR, ultrasound).
Plan and carry out investigations that evaluate the mathematical explanations of light as related to optical systems (e.g., reflection, refraction, diffraction, intensity, polarization, Snell’s law, the inverse square law).
Develop and use models to illustrate electric and magnetic fields, including how each is created (e.g., charging by either conduction or induction and polarizing; sketching field lines for situations such as point charges, a charged straight wire, or a current carrying wires such as solenoids; calculating the forces due to Coulomb’s laws), and predict the motion of charged particles in each field and the energy required to move a charge between two points in each field.
Use the principles of Ohm’s and Kirchhoff’s laws to design, construct, and analyze combination circuits using typical components (e.g., resistors, capacitors, diodes, sources of power).
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