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LITERACY STANDARDS FOR GRADES 6-12: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
College- and Career-Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading
The Grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College- and Career-Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.
•Key Ideas and Details (RST 1-3)
•Craft and Structure (RST 4-6)
•Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (RST 7-9)
•Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (RST 10)
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12
The standards below begin at Grade 6; standards for K-5 writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 writing standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college- and career-readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
•Text Types and Purposes (WHST 1-3)
•Production and Distribution of Writing (WHST 4-6)
•Research to Build and Present Knowledge (WHST 7-9)
•Range of Writing (WHST 10)
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,rewriting, or typing a new approach.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each souce, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Chemistry is an elective course that provides students with an investigation of empirical concepts central to biology, earth science, environmental science, and physiology. Chemistry encompasses both qualitative and quantitative ideas derived using the scientific process. By its very nature, the study of chemistry encourages an inquiry-based approach to understanding the substances and processes that explain our world as well as ourselves. Using the practices of science, core ideas are explored in greater detail and refined with increased sophistication and rigor based upon knowledge acquired in earlier grades. Students use the academic language of science in context to communicate claims, evidence, and reasoning for chemical phenomena. The course provides high school students with more in-depth investigations on the properties and interactions of matter. Students acquire prerequisite skills for postsecondary studies and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Additional external resources, including evidence-based research found in scientific journals, should be utilized to provide students with a broad scientific experience that will adequately prepare them for college, career, and citizenship.
Content standards within this course are organized according to three of the core ideas for Physical Science. The first core idea, Matter and Its Interactions, deals with the substances and processes that encompass our universe on both microscopic and macroscopic levels. The second core idea, Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions, concentrates on forces and motion, types of interactions, and stability and instability in chemical systems. The third core idea, Energy, involves the conservation of energy, energy transformations, and applications of energy to everyday life. Integrated within the disciplinary core ideas of Chemistry are the Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science (ETS) core ideas. The ETS core ideas require students to use tools to solve simple problems and to use representations to convey design solutions to a problem and determine which is most appropriate.
Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford’s gold foil experiment, Thomson’s cathode ray experiment, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, Bohr’s interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.
Develop and use models of atomic nuclei to explain why the abundance-weighted average of isotopes of an element yields the published atomic mass.
Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.
a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.
b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.
c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.
Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.
Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.
a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.
b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.
a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.
b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.
c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.
d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).
Plan and carry out investigations to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.
a. Use mathematics to describe the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas when only the amount of gas is constant.
b. Use mathematical and computational thinking based on the ideal gas law to determine molar quantities.
Refine the design of a given chemical system to illustrate how LeChâtelier’s principle affects a dynamic chemical equilibrium when subjected to an outside stress (e.g., heating and cooling a saturated sugar-water solution).
Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.
Plan and conduct experiments that demonstrate how changes in a system (e.g., phase changes, pressure of a gas) validate the kinetic molecular theory.
a. Develop a model to explain the relationship between the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance and the temperature of the substance (e.g., no kinetic energy equaling absolute zero [0K or -273.15oC]).
Construct an explanation that describes how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends upon changes in the components of the system.
a. Develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
b. Plan and conduct an investigation that demonstrates the transfer of thermal energy in a closed system (e.g., using heat capacities of two components of differing temperatures).
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