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LITERACY STANDARDS FOR GRADES 6-12: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS
College- and Career-Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading
The Grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College- and Career-Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.
•Key Ideas and Details (RST 1-3)
•Craft and Structure (RST 4-6)
•Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (RST 7-9)
•Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (RST 10)
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12
The standards below begin at Grade 6; standards for K-5 writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 writing standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college- and career-readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
•Text Types and Purposes (WHST 1-3)
•Production and Distribution of Writing (WHST 4-6)
•Research to Build and Present Knowledge (WHST 7-9)
•Range of Writing (WHST 10)
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,rewriting, or typing a new approach.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each souce, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
2015 ACOS Biology Standards
Use models to compare and contrast how the structural characteristics of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids define their function in organisms.
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe the function and diversity of organelles and structures in various types of cells (e.g., muscle cells having a large amount of mitochondria, plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plant cells).
Formulate an evidence-based explanation regarding how the composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determines the structural organization of proteins.
•3.a. Obtain and evaluate experiments of major scientists and communicate their contributions to the development of the structure of DNA and to the development of the central dogma of molecular biology
•3.b. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that explains how advancements in genetic technology (e.g., Human Genome Project, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] project, 1000 Genomes Project) have contributed to the understanding as to how a genetic change at the DNA level may affect proteins and, in turn, influence the appearance of traits.
•3.c. Obtain information to identify errors that occur during DNA replication (e.g., deletion, insertion, translocation, substitution, inversion, frame-shift, point mutations).
Develop and use models to explain the role of the cell cycle during growth and maintenance in multicellular organisms (e.g., normal growth and/or uncontrolled growth resulting in tumors).
Plan and carry out investigations to explain feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) and cellular processes (e.g., active and passive transport) that maintain homeostasis.
•5.a. Plan an carry out investigations to explain how the unique properties of water (e.g., polarity, cohesion, adhesion) are vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms.
Analyze and interpret data from investigations to explain the role of products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.
•6.a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain the interactions among pigments, absorption of light, and reflection of light.
Develop and use models to illustrate examples of ecological hierarchy levels, including biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, and organism.
Develop and use models to describe the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, water) and flow of energy (e.g., food chains, food webs, biomass pyramids, ten percent law) between abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems.
Use mathematical comparisons and visual representations to support or refute explanations of factors that affect population growth (e.g., exponential, linear, logistic).
Construct an explanation and design a real-world solution to address changing conditions and ecological succession caused by density-dependent and/or density-independent factors.
Analyze and interpret data collected from probability calculations to explain the variation of expressed traits within a population.
•11.a. Use mathematics and computation to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and percentages by constructing Punnett squares, including using both homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs.
•11.b. Develop and use models to demonstrate codominance, incomplete dominance, and Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.
•11.c. Analyze and interpret data (e.g., pedigree charts, family and population studies) regarding Mendelian and complex genetic disorders (e.g., sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, type 2 diabetes) to determine patterns of genetic inheritance and disease risks from both genetic and environmental factors.
Develop and use a model to analyze the structure of chromosomes and how new genetic combinations occur through the process of meiosis.
•12.a. Analyze data to draw conclusions about genetic disorders caused by errors in meiosis (e.g., Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how organisms are classified by physical characteristics, organized into levels of taxonomy, and identified by binomial nomenclature (e.g., taxonomic classification, dichotomous keys).
13.a. Engage in argument to justify the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things.
Analyze and interpret data to evaluate adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g., antibiotic-resistant bacteria, beak types, peppered moths, pest-resistant crops).
Engage in argument from evidence (e.g., mathematical models such as distribution graphs) to explain how the diversity of organisms is affected by overpopulation of species, variation due to genetic mutations, and competition for limited resources.
Analyze scientific evidence (e.g., DNA, fossil records, cladograms, biogeography) to support hypotheses of common ancestry and biological evolution.
2015 ACOS Environmental Science Standards
Investigate and analyze the use of nonrenewable energy sources (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear, natural gas) and renewable energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal) and propose solutions for their impact on the environment.
Use models to illustrate and communicate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as carbon cycles through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
Use mathematics and graphic models to compare factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems.
Engage in argument from evidence to evaluate how biological or physical changes within ecosystems (e.g., ecological succession, seasonal flooding, volcanic eruptions) affect the number and types of organisms, and that changing conditions may result in a new or altered ecosystem.
Engage in argument from evidence to compare how individual versus group behavior (e.g., flocking; cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming) may affect a species’ chance to survive and reproduce over time.
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe how human activity may affect biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms, including threatened and endangered species.
Analyze and interpret data to investigate how a single change on Earth’s surface may cause changes to other Earth systems (e.g., loss of ground vegetation causing an increase in water runoff and soil erosion).
Engage in an evidence-based argument to explain how over time Earth’s systems affect the biosphere and the biosphere affects Earth’s systems (e.g., microbial life increasing the formation of soil; corals creating reefs that alter patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines).
Develop and use models to trace the flow of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere
Design solutions for protection of natural water resources (e.g., bioassessment, methods of water treatment and conservation) considering properties, uses, and pollutants (e.g., eutrophication, industrial effluents, agricultural runoffs, point and nonpoint pollution resources).
Engage in argument from evidence to defend how coastal, marine, and freshwater sources
(e.g., estuaries, marshes, tidal pools, wetlands, beaches, inlets, rivers, lakes, oceans, coral reefs) support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.
Analyze and interpret data and climate models to predict how global or regional climate change can affect Earth’s systems (e.g., precipitation and temperature and their associated impacts on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmosphere and ocean composition).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information based on evidence to explain how key natural resources (e.g., water sources, fertile soils, concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels), natural hazards, and climate changes influence human activity (e.g., mass migrations).
Analyze cost-benefit ratios of competing solutions for developing, conserving, managing, recycling, and reusing energy and mineral resources to minimize impacts in natural systems (e.g., determining best practices for agricultural soil use, mining for coal, and exploring for petroleum and natural gas sources).
Construct an explanation based on evidence to determine the relationships among management of natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity (e.g., resources, waste management, per capita consumption, agricultural efficiency, urban planning).
Obtain and evaluate information from published results of scientific computational models to illustrate the relationships among Earth’s systems and how these relationships may be impacted by human activity (e.g., effects of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide on photosynthetic biomass, effect of ocean acidification on marine populations).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate geological and biological information to determine the types of organisms that live in major biomes.
•17.a. Analyze and interpret data collected through geographic research and field investigations (e.g., relief, topographic, and physiographic maps; rivers; forest types; watersheds) to describe the biodiversity by region for the state of Alabama (e.g., terrestrial, freshwater, marine, endangered, invasive).
Human Anatomy and Physiology
2015 ACOS Human Anatomy and Physiology Standards
Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body to locate organs and systems.
Analyze characteristics of tissue types (e.g., epithelial tissue) and construct an explanation of how the chemical and structural organizations of the cells that form these tissues are specialized to conduct the function of that tissue (e.g., lining, protecting).
Obtain and communicate information to explain the integumentary system’s structure and function, including layers and accessories of skin and types of membranes.
•3.a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., burns, skin cancer, bacterial and viral infections, chemical dermatitis) to determine the body’s attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Use models to identify the structure and function of the skeletal system (e.g., classification of bones by shape, classification of joints and the appendicular and axial skeletons).
•4.a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the growth and development of the skeletal system (e.g., bone growth and remodeling).
•4.b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system (e.g., types of bone fractures and their treatment, osteoporosis, rickets, other bone diseases).
Develop and use models to illustrate the anatomy of the muscular system, including muscle locations and groups, actions, origins and insertions.
•5.a. Plan and conduct investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system (e.g., muscle contraction/relaxation, muscle fatigue, muscle tone), including pathological conditions (e.g., muscular dystrophy).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information regarding how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate, including how these systems affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
•6.a. Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology on the nervous system (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral palsy, head trauma) and argue possible prevention and treatment options.
•6.b. Design a medication to treat a disorder associated with neurotransmission, including mode of entry into the body, form of medication, and desired effects.•
Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).
•7.a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).
•7.b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).
Communicate scientific information to explain the relationship between the structures and functions, both mechanical (e.g., chewing, churning in stomach) and chemical (e.g., enzymes, hydrochloric acid [HCl] in stomach), of the digestive system, including the accessory organs (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas).
•8.a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the digestive system (e.g., ulcers, Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis).
Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.
•9.a. Engage in argument from evidence describing how environmental (e.g., cigarette smoke, polluted air) and genetic factors may affect the respiratory system, possibly leading to pathological conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to differentiate between the male and female reproductive systems, including pathological conditions that affect each.
•10.a. Use models to demonstrate what occurs in fetal development at each stage of pregnancy.
Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system and to describe their functions.
•12.a. Analyze and interpret data related to the urinary system to show the relationship between homeostatic imbalances and disease (e.g., kidney stones, effects of pH imbalances).
Obtain and communicate information to explain the lymphatic organs and their structure and function.
•12.a. Develop and use a model to explain the body’s lines of defense and immunity.
•12.b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the immune system (e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]).
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that the endocrine glands secrete hormones that help the body maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.
•13.a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., pituitary dwarfism, Addison’s disease, diabetes mellitus) caused by imbalance of the hormones of the endocrine glands.
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